Anti-psychotic Medications.

Anti-psychotic Medications.

What are Anti-psychotic Medications?

Anti-psychotic medications are mainly used to the manage psychosis. Psychosis is a condition where in the mind experiences delusions (false/fixed beliefs) or a hallucinations (hearing or a seeing imaginary things).

Psychosis can be a symptom of a physical condition like a drug abuse or a mental disorder like a schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or a severe manic depression. Anti-psychotics are also used to the treat symptoms associated with a psychotic depression, senile psychoses or a drug-induced psychoses, anxiety or a depression.

Anti-psychotic medications are also known as a neurotics.

The prescription of the anti-psychotics has a increased in the last 20 years, both in a pediatrics as well as in a adult populations.

Anti-psychotics have a short-term benefits of the calming or a slowing in the person and long-term beneficial effects of the reducing in the occurrence of the psychotic episodes.

Anti-psychotic medications are available as a oral dosage forms, like a tablets, capsules, liquids as well as a par-enteral dosage forms, like a intravenous and intramuscular injections.

The choice of the category of the medication depends on a factors like:

Frequency of  the psychotic episodes

Symptoms due to the psychotic disorders

Growth development

Intensity of  the side effects

How do Anti-psychotics Work?

Anti-psychotics influence chemicals in the body known as a neurotransmitters.

These chemicals play to a vital role to help brain cells communicate with a each other. They affect mood, behavior, and emotions.

Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter affected by a anti-psychotic medications. Dopamine is a involved in making to a person feel satisfied, contented or a motivated. If dopamine levels increase, in the person gets hallucinations, delusions, voices and bad thoughts.

In a such situations, in the anti-psychotic medications help in the person feel better, without making them feel a sleepy or a slowed down.

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Some medications block serotonin receptors in the brain, which play an a essential role in a schizophrenia.


What do Anti-psychotics Help With?

Anti-psychotics help in the following situations:

Difficulty in a thinking clearly

Extreme mood swings

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A D H D)

Persons are suffering from a delusions and hallucinations

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (O C D)

Usually, anti-psychotic medicines show best results with a psychotherapy. The medication helps in a treating symptoms, and the psychotherapy or a counseling help in a addressing behavioral issues and the leading causes of the mental issues.


What are the Types of the Anti-psychotic Medications?

The commonly known types of the anti-psychotic medications are:

Older or a first-generation anti-psychotics – As the name suggests, older anti-psychotics are drugs that were used in the mid-1950 s; they are also known as a “Typical” or “Conventional” anti-psychotics. They act by a blocking in the action of the dopamine.

The commonly known typical or a first-generation anti-psychotics are include:

Chlorpromazine

Haloperidol

Trifluoperazine

Pimozide

Fluphenazine

Perphenazine

Newer or a second-generation anti-psychotics – These are drugs are newer compared to the ‘Typical’ anti-psychotics and were introduced in the 1990 s. They are also a called “Atypical” anti-psychotics. They also a act by a blocking dopamine, but with a lesser intensity, as a compared to the older drugs. In a addition to the dopamine, they also act on other neurotransmitters like a serotonin.

Second-generation anti-psychotics also help to a person overcome in their negative feelings, like  lack of the motivation, and lack of the self interest, areas where in the older drugs had less effect.

The atypical or a second-generation anti-psychotics are include:

Aripiprazole

Quetiapine

Olanzapine

Risperidone

Clozapine

Amisulpride

What are the Side Effects of  the Anti-psychotic Medications?

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Anti-psychotic medications can be have a negative effects on various systems in the body:

Cardiovascular system:

Chest pain

Angina

Tachycardia

Cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmia’s

Enema

Liver (hepatic system):

Jaundice

Drug induced hepatitis

Necrosis

Central Nervous System:

Sedation

Hypnosis

Drowsiness

Dementia

Disturbed sleep

Depression

Extra-pyramidal effects:

Tar-dive Duskiness

Ataxia

Muscle breakdown

Tremors

Rigidity

Gastrointestinal system:

Dry mouth

Weight gain

Nausea

Heartburn

Constipation

Genito-urinary (urinary and reproductive) system:

Premature ejaculation

Impotence

Polyuria

Swelling and tenderness of breast

Impotence

Other side effects:

Restlessness or akathisia

Slow in thinking

Dermatological side effects

High probability of suffering from diabetes

Blurred vision

How Long Should One Take Anti-psychotic Medications?

The duration of taking a anti-psychotic medications varies from person to the person. Some may be need it as a short-term therapy for about two weeks, while others may be need to take it longer, at the  times, up to the 5 years.

People who are experience recurrent psychotic episodes may be need to take in the medication for a life.

In a situations, where in the side effects are intense, in the psychiatrist may be adjust in the dose prescribe alternate medications

What Precautionary Measures Need to be a Taken When on Anti-psychotic Medications?

One needs to the follow certain precautions when on a anti-psychotic medications:

The doctor or a healthcare are provider must be a informed of the following when on anti-psychotic medications:

Other medications being a consumed

Any a known allergies

Alcohol drinking or a smoking habits

Any a existing injuries or a diseases

Side effects noted when on a anti-psychotic medications:

Any a changes in a physical health

In a case the anti-psychotic medication has to be a withdrawn, it must be done slowly and gradually. If they are discontinued suddenly, in the person may again suffer from a symptoms like a nausea, hypertension and sleep disturbances.

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When on a anti-psychotic medications, one must keep to a watch on the physical health and go for a regular health-checkups, as these medications can be increase in the risk of diabetes and other health-related complications.

Some of the routine tests which must be a conducted are include:

Blood cell count

Functioning of the liver and kidneys

Blood lipid profile

Blood glucose level

Regular exercise, getting good sleep and eating a nutritious food help in a controlling in the side effects of the  anti-psychotic medications.

Who Should Not Take a Anti-psychotic Medications?

Anti-psychotics cannot be a prescribed with a other medications or a substances like:

Anti-anxiety drugs

Anti-depressants

Anticoagulants

Hypertensive agents

Alcohol

Smoking

Anti-psychotics are also not a prescribed in a patients who are suffering from

Cardiovascular disease

Epilepsy

Myasthenia gravies

Respiratory problems

Coma

History of jaundice


References:

Know More On a Typical and Atypical Anti-psychotic Agents –

(https://www.goodtherapy.org/drugs/anti-psychotics.html)

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