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03/03/2022

treatment protocol and precaution method for dengue fever in india 2022

Treatment protocol and palladium system for the dengue fever in a India 2022 



An estimated 400 million dengue infections do the worldwide each time, with about 96 million performing in the illness. Utmost the cases do in a tropical areas of the world, with the topmost threat being in 


  • The Indian key 
  • Southeast Asia 
  • Southern China 
  • Taiwan 
  • The Pacific Islets 
  • The Caribbean (except Cuba and Cayman Islets) 
  • Mexico 
  • Africa 
  • South America (except Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina) 


Utmost cases in the United States do in the people who contracted the infection while traveling abroad. But the threat is added for the people living along the Texas-Mexico border and in the other corridor of the southern United States. In the 2014, an outbreak of dengue fever was linked in the Hawaii with other outbreaks in the 2013 in Brownsville, Texas and Key West, Fla. 


Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of an the Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue contagion. The mosquito comes infected when it bites a person with dengue virus in their blood. the dengue it can it  be spread directly from one person to the another person. 


Symptoms of Dengue Fever


Symptoms, which generally begin four to the six days after infection and last for over to 10 days, may involve 


  • Unforeseen, high fever 
  • Severe headaches 
  • Pain behind the eyes 
  • Severe joint and muscle pain 
  • Fatigue 
  • Nausea 
  • Vomiting 
  • Skin rash, which appears the two to five days after the onset of the fever 
  • Mild bleeding (such a nose bleed, bleeding epoxies, or easy the bruising) 

Occasionally, symptoms are mild and can be the incorrect for those of the flu or another viral infection. Youngish children and people who have noway had the infection before tend to the have milder cases than aged children and grown-ups. Still, serious problems can develop. These involve dengue hemorrhagic fever, a rare complication characterized by the high fever, damage to the lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and epoxies, blowup of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system. The symptoms may progress to the massive bleeding, shock, and death. This is called a dengue shock pattern (DSS). 


People with weakened vulnerable systems as well as those with a alternate or posterior dengue infection are the  believed to be at lesser threat for the developing dengue hemorrhagic fever. 


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Diagnosing Dengue Fever 

Croakers can diagnose dengue infection with a blood test to check for the contagion or antibodies toit.However, let your croaker know, If you can come sick after the traveling to a tropical area. This will be allow your croaker to estimate the possibility that your symptoms were caused by a dengue infection. 


Treatment for Dengue Fever 


There is no specific drug to treat dengue infection.However, you should be use pain relievers with the acetaminophen and avoid drugs with aspirin, which could worsen bleeding, If you suppose you may have dengue fever. You should also rest, drink plenitude of the fluids, and see your doctor.However, you should get to a sanitarium in continently to be checked for complications, If you start to feel worse with in the first 24 hours after the your fever goes down. 


Precluding Dengue Fever 

The best way to help the complaint is to help mouthfuls by the infected mosquitoes, particularly if you are living in or traveling to a tropical area. This include the guarding yourself and making sweats to keep the mosquito population down. In the 2019, the FDA approved a vaccine called Dengvaxia to help the complaint from the being in adolescents progressed 9 to 16 who have formerly been infected by the dengue. But, there presently is no vaccine to help the general population from the contracting it. 


  • To the cover yourself 
  • Use mosquito repellents, indeed outdoors. 
  • When the outside, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants partake into socks. 
  • When the indoors, use air exertion if is available. 
  • Make sure window and door defenses are secure and free of the holes.However, use mosquito nets, If sleeping areas aren't screened or air conditioned. 
  • Still, speak to your croaker, If you have symptoms of the dengue. 


Key facts

  • Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to the humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The primary vectors that transmit the disease are the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus.
  • The virus responsible for causing dengue, is called by dengue virus (DENV). There are the four DENV serotypes and it is possible to be infected four times.
  • While many DENV infections produce only mild illness, DENV can cause an the acute flu-like illness. Occasionally this develops into a potentially lethal complication, called a severe dengue.
  • There is no specific treatment for the dengue/severe dengue. Early detection of disease progression associated with the severe dengue, and access to the proper medical care lowers fatality rates of severe dengue to below 1%.
  • Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in the urban and semi-urban areas.
  • The global incidence of dengue has the grown dramatically with about half of the world's population now at risk. Although an a estimated 100-400 million infections occur each year, over the 80% are generally mild and asymptomatic.
  • Dengue prevention and control depends on the effective vector control measures. Sustained community involvement can be improve vector control efforts substantially.

Transmission 

Transmission through mosquito bite 

The contagion is transmitted to the humans through the mouthfuls of infected womanish mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Other the species within the Aedes rubric can also act as the vectors, but their donation is secondary to the Aedes aegypti. 


 After feeding on an DENV-infected person, the contagion replicates in the mosquito midgut, before it disseminates to secondary apkins, including the salivary glands. The time it takes from ingesting the contagion to factual transmission to a new host is nominated the foreign incubation period (EIP). The EIP takes about 8-12 days when the ambient temperature is between the 25-28 °C (4-6). Variations in the foreign incubation period are not only told by the ambient temperature; a number of the factors similar as the magnitude of diurnal temperature oscillations (7, 8), contagion genotype (9), and original viral attention (10) can also alter the time it takes for a mosquito to the transmit contagion. Once contagious, the mosquito is able of transmitting contagion for the rest of its life. 


Mortal- to-mosquito transmission 

 

Mosquitoes can come infected from people who are viremic with the DENV. This can be someone who has a characteristic dengue infection, someone who is  yet to have a characteristic infection (they arepre-symptomatic), but also people who show no signs of the illness as well (they are asymptomatic) (11). 


Mortal-to-mosquito transmission can do up to the 2 days before someone shows symptoms of the illness (5, 11), up to 2 days after the fever has the resolved (12). 


Threat of mosquito infection is appreciatively associated with the high viremia and high fever in the case; again, high situations of the DENV-specific antibodies are associated with a dropped threat of the mosquito infection (Nguyen etal. 2013 PNAS). Utmost people are viremic for about 4-5 days, but viremia can last as long as 12 days (13). 


Treatment 


There's no specific treatment for the dengue fever. Cases should rest, stay doused and seek medical advice. Depending on the clinical instantiations and other circumstances, cases may be transferred home, be appertained for the in- sanitarium operation, or bear exigency treatment and critical referral (25). 


Probative care similar as fever reducers and pain killers can be taken to control the symptoms of  the muscle pangs and pains, and fever. 


The best options to the treat these symptoms are acetaminophen or paracetamol. 


NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines), similar as ibuprofen and aspirin should be a avoided. These Anti-inflammatory medicines act by lacing the blood, and in a complaint with threat of the hemorrhage, blood thinners may complicate the prognostic. 


For severe dengue, medical care by the croakers and nursers endured with the goods and progression of the complaint can save lives – dwindling mortality rates to lower than the 1 in maturity of the countries. 


 Vaccination against dengue 

 The first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia ® (CYD-TDV) developed by Sanofi Pasteur was the certified in December 2015 and has now been approved by the non supervisory authorities in 


 20 countries. In the November 2017, the results of an the fresh analysis to retrospectively determine serostatus at the time of the vaccination were released. The analysis showed that the subset of the trial actors who were inferred to be seronegative at time of first vaccination had a advanced threat of more than severe dengue and hospitalizations from the dengue compared to unvaccinated actors. As similar, use of the CYD-TDV vaccine is targeted for the persons living in aboriginal areas, 9-45 times of the age, who have had at least 1 occasion of the dengue contagion infection in the history. Several fresh dengue vaccine campaigners are under evaluation. 


 

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